Course:SOCI1110/Jean Baudrillard

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Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard.png
Jean Baudrillard

Early Years

Jean Baudrillard was born in Reims, France on July 29th, 1929 and died March 6th 2007 in Paris, France. Being the first in his family to attend university, Baudrillard studied German at the Sorbonne. After completing his studies at the Sorbonne he taught German literature (1956-66), published essays in Les Temps Modernes, and translated german literary and philosophical works. From 1966-1968 Baudrillard both taught in the sociology department, and attended the Paris West University Nanterre La Défense where he finished his thesis in sociology: ‘Le Système des objects (1968). After the student revolts of 1968 he moved the University of Paris at Dauphine, where he retired from in 1987. Baudrillard became increasingly famous closer to the 21st century and in the 21st for developing controversial writings on 9/11 and the Gulf War.

Early Works

Baudrillards early work (‘’’1970-1972 The System of Objects, La Société de consommation (1970; The Consumer Society), and Pour une critique de l’économie politique du signe (1972; For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign)’’’ is influenced by Marxist political economy and ‘semiology’. In these writings he discusses how things have intangible value, as well as an economic value. After these writings he strived away from Marxism and developed an idea of postmodernism where consumers and online images have become hyperreal compared to physical reality.

Influence by Time

Living through World War II and being heavily influenced by the culture of his surroundings, Baudrillard believed that culture formed a personality. but as time went on he found that culture became less and less a deciding factor to what made up a persons personality. in the late 20th century while the idea of consumerism increased, people began to use objects to shape their personality as opposed to retaining their culture and background. As things became more readily available for consumers and it became increasingly easier to purchase goods He believed that consumers began to buy things frivolously because they were marketed to be meaningful, but not useful. As time went on, people continued to consume themselves in materialistic objects. In his later writings Baudrillard says that social structure has completely collapsed, leaving a translucent reality in its wake. People are left without social classes to fit into. After traveling through America while attempting to experience culture with a sociological outlook, he compared it to a desert of culture.


Major Events and How they Influenced Baudrillard

1929

Car radio invented

With the creation of the car radio information became more accessible than before

Great Depression begins

Most likely influencing Baudrillard in the way that he wouldn't have grown up with much disposable income which explains his idea that modern society is too materialistic.

1938

World War II begins

Baudrillard believed that pre World War II society was as a whole fueled by production, and after World War II it was fueled by consumption.

1945

World War II ends

Baudrillard believes that at this point society began to be fueled by consumption

1950

first modern credit card introduced

The introduction of the credit card makes consumption easier

1951

First Color TV Introduced

This begins to make way for commercials which will fuel consumption

1963

Martin Luther King Jr. 'I Have a Dream' speech

Breaking many social boundaries as the African American community begins to attain equality

1965

US sends troops to Vietnam

Baudrillard believed that the Vietnam War coverage was the beginning of media maintaining the illusion of actuality

1970

Computer Floppy Disk Introduced

This would continue the evolution of simulation

1975

Microsoft Founded

creating a push in consumerism and simulation

1976

Apple Computer Founded

creating an even bigger bush in consumerism and simulation by competing with Microsoft

1981

First Woman Appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court

Breaking many social boundaries as the female community begins to attain equality

1989

World Wide Web Created

Increasing the ability of simulation and consumerism

1991

Gulf War

Motivated Baudrillard to write The Gulf War did not take place

2001

Attacks on the World Trade Center

Influenced Baudrillard to write "The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers"

Jean Baudrillard's Major Writings and Theoretical Works

(Ordered Alphabetically)
  • 1988, America, London: Verso.
  • 1990a, Cool Memories, London: Verso.
  • 1996a, Cool Memories II, Oxford: Polity Press.
  • 1990b, Fatal Strategies, New York: Semiotext(e).
  • 1981 [1973], For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, St. Louis: Telos Press.
  • 1997, Fragments: Cool Memories III, 1990-1995, London and New York: Verso Books.
  • 2001, Impossible Exchange, London: Verso.
  • 1983b, In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities, New York: Semiotext(e).
  • 2002b, Screened Out, London: Verso.
  • 1994a, Simulacra and Simulation, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
  • 1983a, Simulations, New York: Semiotext(e).
  • 1993a, Symbolic Exchange and Death, London: Sage.
  • 1996c [1968], The System of Objects, London: Verso.
  • 1998 [1970], The Consumer Society, Paris: Gallimard.
  • 1975 [1973], The Mirror of Production, St. Louis: Telos Press.
  • 1983c, “The Ecstacy of Communication,” in The Anti-Aesthetic, Hal Foster (ed.), Washington: Bay Press.
  • 1993b, The Transparency of Evil, London: Verso.
  • 1994b, The Illusion of the End, Oxford: Polity Press.
  • 1995, The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, P. Patton (trans.), Sydney: Power Publications, and Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • 1996b, The Perfect Crime, London and New York: Verso Books.
  • 2000, The Vital Illusion, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • 2002a, The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers, London: Verso.
  • 1987, “When Bataille Attacked the Metaphysical Principle of Economy,” D.J. Miller (trans.), Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 11: 57–62.

Fundemental Ideas

Simularica and Simulation

Simularica and Simulation is a Philosophy developed by Baudrillard in the 1980s. His main ideas are that Simulation imitates real life examples, where simularica is an imitation or representation with no original to begin with. This simulation becomes the ideal image and reality, over what is actually being represented or to be the truth.

Hyper-reality

Bauldrillard's theory of hyper-reality tells us that the real and unreal are merged into one. Bauldrillard uses Disneyland as an example, Disneyland being presented to us as unreal, while the city of Los Angels and the rest of American states are reality. However, Disneyland is only presented to us as unreal, to emphasize life outside of it to be 'reality' when in fact Disneyland is reality. Hence, making Disneyland contradictory reality.

Sources