“Encompassing all those activities undertaken by teachers, and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged” (Black & Wiliams,1998)
Benefits to Feedback
Sadler (1989) identified three conditions necessary for students to benefit from feedback in academic tasks. He argued that the student must know:
- what good performance is (i.e. the student must possess a concept of the goal orstandard being aimed for);
- how current performance relates to good performance (for this, the student must be able to compare current and good performance)
- how to act to close the gap
Seven principles of good feedback practice (Nicol and Dick, 2006, p. 205 ) that support student self-assessment. Feedback practice:
1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected sandards);
2. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning;
3. delivers high quality information to students about their learning;
4. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning;
5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem;
6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance;
7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape teaching.
Black, P. and D. Wiliam (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1): 7-68.
Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane‐Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.
Sadler, D. R. (1989). "Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems." Instructional Science, 18: 119-144.