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Karl Marx
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[[File:Https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George Herbert Mead.jpg|thumbnail]]
=== Early Life and Education ===
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=== Overview ===
  
Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818. He was born in Trier, Germany, to middle-class parents Heinrich Marx and Henrietta Pressburg. Both parents had came from long lines of rabbis. Heinrich Marx was pursuing a career in law and shortly before Marx's birth, he was baptized and converted to Christianity, as he would not be able to have a successful law career while facing Prussia's anti-Jewish laws. Marx was baptized in the Lutheran church six years after his birth. At the age of 18, Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, the daughter of a prominent aristocrat in Trier society, Ludwig von Westphalen.
+
George Herbert Mead was born on February 27, 1863 in South Hadley Massachusetts. He came from a family of intelligent, hard working people. His father, Hiram Mead was a minister and a professor of homiletics. His mother, Elizabeth Storrs Billings Mead was a professor and president at Mt. Holyoke College. He had one older sister named Alice. Mead was raised in a very traditional Congregationalist home environment. In 1870, the Mead family moved from Massachusetts to Oberlin, Ohio. In Oberlin, Mead got his start at his many future educational and professional successes. He died on April 26, 1931 at the age of 68 due to heart failure in Chicago, Illinois.
[[File:Https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lot-images.atgmedia.com/SR/1794/2896273/123-20131231743 540x360.jpg|thumbnail]]
 
From 1830 until 1835, Marx attended high school in Trier. In October of 1835, Marx enrolled in the University of Bonn. There he studied courses in the Humanities and Art Histories. Marx also joined the Poets' Club that included political activism, and Tavern Club drinking society while at Bonn. The summer of 1836, Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whom Marx had known since childhood. After only a year at the University of Bonn, Marx was encouraged by his father to pursue a more serious education in law at the University of Berlin. It was around this time that he was introduced to Hegel's philosophy, eventually joining the Doctor's Club which discussed many ideas based around Hegel's ideals. This club soon became involved with the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young_Hegelians Young Hegelians] movement. The Doctor's Club was headed by Bruno Bauer and Ludwig Feuerbach. Marx had begun writing by 1837, producing novels of fiction and non-fiction, as well as poems, none of these works were published however. Marx's doctoral thesis, ''The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature'', was advised by Bruno Bauer and completed in 1841. After facing controversy from the conservative University of Berlin, Marx took his thesis to the University of Jena. Marx was awarded his PhD in April 1841.  
 
  
=== Major Accomplishments ===
+
=== Education ===
  
One of Marx's first writing series were the ''Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844)''. Marx wrote these series in Paris, and were not published until the 1930s. In these works, Marx displayed influence from Ludwig Feuerbach's philosophy and described a humanist take on communism.  
+
From 1879-1883 Mead attended the Congregationalist Oberlin College, graduating with a Bachelors in 1883. Henry Northrup Castle, a longtime friend and eventually brother in law of Mead’s, who he had met at Oberlin, persuaded Mead to apply to Harvard College in 1887 where he studied psychology and philosophy. He graduated from Harvard in 1888 with another Bachelors Degree. After graduating from Harvard, Mead went to Europe, specifically Leipzig, Germany, to meet up with Henry and his sister Helen Kingsbury Castle. He studied short term at the University of Leipzig from 1888-1889, where he became extremely interested in Darwinism and the Darwinian Revolution, which influenced him to think of human development in naturalistic terms. During his stay in Europe, he ended up in Berlin, attending the University of Berlin in the spring of 1889, working on his Ph.D. While in Berlin, Mead and Helen began a romance and eventually married on October 1, 1891. They had one child together. Unfortunately, Mead never completed his Ph.D. In the year of 1891 he was offered an instructorship position at the University of Michigan to teach psychology and philosophy. He and his new family moved back to the states for that job offer. He taught at the University of Michigan from 1891-1894 where he was then secured an assistant professorship by a close friend and colleague John Dewey, at the New University of Chicago, who he had met while working at the University of Michigan and who chaired the philosophy department. Mead was an assistant philosophy professor from 1894-1902 then became an associate professor from 1902-1907. He then got a full professorship at the University of Chicago from 1907 until he died in 1931. During the course of that time, Mead, Dewey and numerous other colleagues became known as the Chicago School of Pragmatism, for the huge influence that they had in forming a new way of thinking and the impact they made in the field of the Symbolic Interaction theoryHe had an appointment to meet and talk with superiors about a professorship at Columbia University beginning in the fall of 1931, but he passed away in the spring beforehand.
Another one of Marx's writings, ''The German Ideology'' had the thesis that "the nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production."
 
Marx and lifelong friend Friedrich Engels had become the major theoreticians of the Communist League, and were commissioned to write the League's position declaration near the end of 1847. ''The Communist Manifesto'' was barely published before waves of revolutions started happening in Europe in 1848.
 
''The Class Struggles in France'' and ''The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte'' were written France's 1848 revolution and the aftermath.
 
One of Marx's larger pieces was the ''Grundrisse'', a three-volume writing that analyzes Marx's views of capitalism, as well as the topics of production, distribution, exchange, alienation, value, and labor.   
 
  
=== Contributions to Sociology ===
+
=== Career and Influential People===
  
Karl Marx's greatest contribution to society is his method of analyzing class relations and the theory that the capitalist system will be eventually subjected to a socialist order and classless society following the dictatorship of the proletariat. This view is now known as Marxism. Marxism philosophies are related by the ideas of philosophical anthropology, historical theory, and economic structure.
+
After graduating from Oberlin, Mead worked short term (four months to be exact) as a grade school teacher. He was fired for his teaching methods being too harsh on the children. From 1883-1887 he worked as a surveyor for the Wisconsin Central Rail Road Company. While attending Harvard, he was a private tutor to the children of a friend and colleague named William James. He had met James during his studies there and looked up to him for his ideals and methods. Another man that Mead looked up to and appreciated his views on romanticism and idealism was Josiah Royce also from Harvard. During his stay at the University of Leipzig, Mead studied and was influenced by Wilhelm Wundt and G Stanley Hall. Hall made a recommendation on behalf of Mead and suggested that he transfer to the University of Berlin to continue his studies. In 1889 Mead made the school change and studied economic theory and physiological psychology. At the University of Michigan he became influenced by social psychologist Charles Horton Cooley and psychologist Alfred Lloyd. Colleagues and friends, Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead considered Mead to be a thinker of the highest order.
 +
 
 +
=== Publishings and Movements ===
 +
 
 +
No books were ever published by Mead himself. However, he did co-edit a volume on vocationalism and is the author of many scholarly and civic minded articles. After his death, a group of his students got together and went through all of his unpublished manuscripts and notes from lectures over the years, then edited and published them into 5 novels and one lecture book with Mead’s name on them. Mead’s Carus Lectures was a book on all of his notes from his teachings that came out in 1930. The other novels that were published are: ''The Philosophy of the Present'' from 1932, ''Mind, Self and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist'' from 1934, ''Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century'' from 1936, ''The Philosophy of the Act'' from 1938 and ''The Individual and the Social Self from 1982.  
 +
 
 +
Some of Mead's most popular papers are: ''"Suggestions Towards a Theory of the Philosophical Disciplines"'' (1900), "''Social Consciousness and the'' ''Consciousness of Meaning"'' (1910), "''What Social Objects Must Psychology Presuppose''" (1910), "''The Mechanism of Social Consciousness"'' (1912), "''The Social Self''" (1913), "''Scientific Method and the Individual Thinker''" (1917), "''A Behaviouristic Account of the Significant Symbol''" (1922), "''The Genesis of Self and Social Control''" (1925), "''The Objective Reality of Perspectives''" (1926) and "''The Nature of the Past''" (1929).
 +
 
 +
Mead was a passionate person when it came to what he believed in. He is known to have marched with suffragists, actively supported strikers, he was the treasurer of the University of Chicago’s settlement board, he also chaired the City Club Committee on public education and was the vice president of the Immigrants Protective League.
 +
 
 +
Mead is to this day, a highly respected sociologist and philosopher and is one of the founding fathers of symbolic interactionism and hugely impacted today’s social scientists and philosophers. His views about animal versus human gestures and behaviours also helped give rise to the school of symbolic interaction. Mead’s work did not fit within the borders of conventional practice, but he shaped the way sociologists and psychologists think about and view their practices.
 +
 
 +
=== Historical World Events during His Lifetime ===
 +
 
 +
1864
 +
* Lincoln is assassinated
 +
* End of the Civil war in the US
 +
1865
 +
* Slavery is abolished in the US
 +
1867
 +
* Canadian Confederation
 +
1869
 +
* Suez Canal opens - reduces travel time for trade between Europe and Asia
 +
1875
 +
* Civil Rights Act is passed in the US
 +
1876
 +
* Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone
 +
1896
 +
* US supreme court rules that “separate but equal”  public facilities for whites and blacks are legal
 +
1900
 +
* World population is 1.7 billion, up from 1 billion in 1800
 +
* Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the US
 +
1905
 +
* Albert Einstein submits his paper that will develop his argument for E=mc<sup>2</sup>
 +
1907
 +
* New Zealand and Newfoundland join the British Commonwealth
 +
1912
 +
* The Titanic sinks
 +
1914
 +
* World War I begins
 +
1918
 +
* World War I ends
 +
1919
 +
* The Treaty of Versailles is signed
 +
1929
 +
* The Stock Market crashes
 +
* The Great Depression begins
 +
1931
 +
* The worst of the  Great Depression - almost 25% are unemployed in the US
 
   
 
   
=== Significant Happenings During Marx's Lifetime ===
+
=== The Theory of I and Me ===
+
 
*Deaths:  
+
Mead’s largest contribution to the socological world was his theory of [https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/individuals-and-society/self-presentation-and-interacting-with-others/v/george-herbert-mead-the-i-and-the-me “I” and “Me”]. This theory encompasses the development of our social self (“Me”) and how we personally and individually react (“I”) to our social selves. When we are children we don't have the capability or wherewithal to understand how others around us are influencing “Me.” As we grow up we begin to understand the social influences around us and ultimately develop both “Me” and “I.” When we are only engaged in the “me” we are not engaging ourselves “at a non-reflective level” ([http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy])
Ludwig van Beethoven, 1827
+
 
Edgar Allan Poe, 1849
+
Mead's Theory of "I" and "Me" could be thought of as follows; Me is your day to day self, going through life as anyone does, and I as an outsider looking in. I would observe Me's interactions with other around them and how those interactions shaped me as an individual.
Abraham Lincoln, 1865
+
 
Charles Darwin, 1882
+
Mead was also a driving force in Symbolic Interactionism. Symbolic Interactionism focuses on interactions a micro level in social settings. This theory asks people to understand "the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances" (Brym et al).
*Births:
+
 
Walt Whitman, 1819
+
=== Mead's Theories in Relation to the World Around Him ===
Chief Joseph, 1840
 
  
1824 - Mexico becomes a republic. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.
+
Mead's home life and the world around him may have influenced some of his ideas, career choices and theories.
1826 - The world's first photograph is captured by Joseph-Nicephore Niepce
 
1837- Victoria becomes Great Britain's queen.
 
1840 - Lower and upper Canada unite.
 
1841 - U.S President Harrison dies one month after inauguration.
 
1846 - U.S declares war on Mexico
 
1848 - Revolt in Paris, Louis Philippe abdicates, Louis Napoleon elected president of French Republic.
 
1851 - Moby-Dick written by Herman Melville.
 
1861 - U.S Civil War.
 
1873 - Economic Crisis in Europe.
 
1876 - General George A. Custer and 264 troopers killed by Sioux at Little Big Horn River. Telephone is patented by Alexander Graham Bell.
 
1879 - Thomas Edison invents the lightbulb.
 
1883 - Brooklyn Bridge and Metropolitan Opera House completed.
 
  
=== Marx's Role and Relation to His World ===
+
Mead's parents were highly successful and educated individuals, so that would have had to influence him in some way or another, and encouraged him to pursue higher education and higher thinking methods as well.
  
Marx had plenty of influential factors in his personal life growing up. One of the most major influences in his education and career was his father, a Christian and a lawyer, who advised Marx to pursue his own career in the serious studies of law and philosophy. Perhaps without this influence, Marx would have continued on with his original interest in the Humanities, studying mythology and art. Marx also had atheist views of the world, and this perhaps gave him his logical and analytical view of societies class systems and labor value. Most of Marx's writing were written for or influenced by the Communist revolution.
+
One of the major world events during Mead's lifetime was the Civil Rights Act. Although this movement took place when he was only 12 years old, the effects of this movement would be continued to be felt, discussed and changed over the years. This movement was prominent throughout his lifetime and may have been a defining factoring in the development of his theories. This may have contributed to the development of his theory regarding the development of "I" and "Me". This movement could be seen in relation to the development of "Me" and engaging yourself in the world around you, relating yourself to the actions and rights of others.
  
 
=== References ===
 
=== References ===
  
Kreis, S. (2000). The History Guide. Retrieved from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.HTML
+
Aboulafia, M. (2010). George Herbert Mead. American National Biography. Retrieved from Oxford University Press.
 +
 
 +
Aboulafia, M. (2016). George Herbert Mead. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/#IMe
 +
 
 +
About, Inc. (2016). Retrieved from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/George-Herbert-Mead.htm
  
McLellan, D.
+
Brym et al. (2016) Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, Fifth Canadian Edition Toronto: Maya Castle and Leanna MacLean
Feuer, L. (2016). Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Karl-Marx
 
  
Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Karl-Marx
+
Cronk, George. (2016). George Herbert Mead. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/mead/  
  
The Famous People. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/karl-marx-222.php
+
George Herbert Mead. 2016, September 28). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert_Mead
  
Chambre, H.
+
Miller, B. (n.d.) George Herbert Mead- The I and the Me Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/individuals-and-society/self-presentation-and-interacting-with-others/v/george-herbert-mead-the-i-and-the-me
McLellan, D. (2016) Marxism. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Marxism
 

Latest revision as of 16:18, 21 November 2016

Overview

George Herbert Mead was born on February 27, 1863 in South Hadley Massachusetts. He came from a family of intelligent, hard working people. His father, Hiram Mead was a minister and a professor of homiletics. His mother, Elizabeth Storrs Billings Mead was a professor and president at Mt. Holyoke College. He had one older sister named Alice. Mead was raised in a very traditional Congregationalist home environment. In 1870, the Mead family moved from Massachusetts to Oberlin, Ohio. In Oberlin, Mead got his start at his many future educational and professional successes. He died on April 26, 1931 at the age of 68 due to heart failure in Chicago, Illinois.

Education

From 1879-1883 Mead attended the Congregationalist Oberlin College, graduating with a Bachelors in 1883. Henry Northrup Castle, a longtime friend and eventually brother in law of Mead’s, who he had met at Oberlin, persuaded Mead to apply to Harvard College in 1887 where he studied psychology and philosophy. He graduated from Harvard in 1888 with another Bachelors Degree. After graduating from Harvard, Mead went to Europe, specifically Leipzig, Germany, to meet up with Henry and his sister Helen Kingsbury Castle. He studied short term at the University of Leipzig from 1888-1889, where he became extremely interested in Darwinism and the Darwinian Revolution, which influenced him to think of human development in naturalistic terms. During his stay in Europe, he ended up in Berlin, attending the University of Berlin in the spring of 1889, working on his Ph.D. While in Berlin, Mead and Helen began a romance and eventually married on October 1, 1891. They had one child together. Unfortunately, Mead never completed his Ph.D. In the year of 1891 he was offered an instructorship position at the University of Michigan to teach psychology and philosophy. He and his new family moved back to the states for that job offer. He taught at the University of Michigan from 1891-1894 where he was then secured an assistant professorship by a close friend and colleague John Dewey, at the New University of Chicago, who he had met while working at the University of Michigan and who chaired the philosophy department. Mead was an assistant philosophy professor from 1894-1902 then became an associate professor from 1902-1907. He then got a full professorship at the University of Chicago from 1907 until he died in 1931. During the course of that time, Mead, Dewey and numerous other colleagues became known as the Chicago School of Pragmatism, for the huge influence that they had in forming a new way of thinking and the impact they made in the field of the Symbolic Interaction theory. He had an appointment to meet and talk with superiors about a professorship at Columbia University beginning in the fall of 1931, but he passed away in the spring beforehand.

Career and Influential People

After graduating from Oberlin, Mead worked short term (four months to be exact) as a grade school teacher. He was fired for his teaching methods being too harsh on the children. From 1883-1887 he worked as a surveyor for the Wisconsin Central Rail Road Company. While attending Harvard, he was a private tutor to the children of a friend and colleague named William James. He had met James during his studies there and looked up to him for his ideals and methods. Another man that Mead looked up to and appreciated his views on romanticism and idealism was Josiah Royce also from Harvard. During his stay at the University of Leipzig, Mead studied and was influenced by Wilhelm Wundt and G Stanley Hall. Hall made a recommendation on behalf of Mead and suggested that he transfer to the University of Berlin to continue his studies. In 1889 Mead made the school change and studied economic theory and physiological psychology. At the University of Michigan he became influenced by social psychologist Charles Horton Cooley and psychologist Alfred Lloyd. Colleagues and friends, Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead considered Mead to be a thinker of the highest order.

Publishings and Movements

No books were ever published by Mead himself. However, he did co-edit a volume on vocationalism and is the author of many scholarly and civic minded articles. After his death, a group of his students got together and went through all of his unpublished manuscripts and notes from lectures over the years, then edited and published them into 5 novels and one lecture book with Mead’s name on them. Mead’s Carus Lectures was a book on all of his notes from his teachings that came out in 1930. The other novels that were published are: The Philosophy of the Present from 1932, Mind, Self and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist from 1934, Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century from 1936, The Philosophy of the Act from 1938 and The Individual and the Social Self from 1982.

Some of Mead's most popular papers are: "Suggestions Towards a Theory of the Philosophical Disciplines" (1900), "Social Consciousness and the Consciousness of Meaning" (1910), "What Social Objects Must Psychology Presuppose" (1910), "The Mechanism of Social Consciousness" (1912), "The Social Self" (1913), "Scientific Method and the Individual Thinker" (1917), "A Behaviouristic Account of the Significant Symbol" (1922), "The Genesis of Self and Social Control" (1925), "The Objective Reality of Perspectives" (1926) and "The Nature of the Past" (1929).

Mead was a passionate person when it came to what he believed in. He is known to have marched with suffragists, actively supported strikers, he was the treasurer of the University of Chicago’s settlement board, he also chaired the City Club Committee on public education and was the vice president of the Immigrants Protective League.

Mead is to this day, a highly respected sociologist and philosopher and is one of the founding fathers of symbolic interactionism and hugely impacted today’s social scientists and philosophers. His views about animal versus human gestures and behaviours also helped give rise to the school of symbolic interaction. Mead’s work did not fit within the borders of conventional practice, but he shaped the way sociologists and psychologists think about and view their practices.

Historical World Events during His Lifetime

1864

  • Lincoln is assassinated
  • End of the Civil war in the US

1865

  • Slavery is abolished in the US

1867

  • Canadian Confederation

1869

  • Suez Canal opens - reduces travel time for trade between Europe and Asia

1875

  • Civil Rights Act is passed in the US

1876

  • Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone

1896

  • US supreme court rules that “separate but equal” public facilities for whites and blacks are legal

1900

  • World population is 1.7 billion, up from 1 billion in 1800
  • Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the US

1905

  • Albert Einstein submits his paper that will develop his argument for E=mc2

1907

  • New Zealand and Newfoundland join the British Commonwealth

1912

  • The Titanic sinks

1914

  • World War I begins

1918

  • World War I ends

1919

  • The Treaty of Versailles is signed

1929

  • The Stock Market crashes
  • The Great Depression begins

1931

  • The worst of the Great Depression - almost 25% are unemployed in the US

The Theory of I and Me

Mead’s largest contribution to the socological world was his theory of “I” and “Me”. This theory encompasses the development of our social self (“Me”) and how we personally and individually react (“I”) to our social selves. When we are children we don't have the capability or wherewithal to understand how others around us are influencing “Me.” As we grow up we begin to understand the social influences around us and ultimately develop both “Me” and “I.” When we are only engaged in the “me” we are not engaging ourselves “at a non-reflective level” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Mead's Theory of "I" and "Me" could be thought of as follows; Me is your day to day self, going through life as anyone does, and I as an outsider looking in. I would observe Me's interactions with other around them and how those interactions shaped me as an individual.

Mead was also a driving force in Symbolic Interactionism. Symbolic Interactionism focuses on interactions a micro level in social settings. This theory asks people to understand "the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances" (Brym et al).

Mead's Theories in Relation to the World Around Him

Mead's home life and the world around him may have influenced some of his ideas, career choices and theories.

Mead's parents were highly successful and educated individuals, so that would have had to influence him in some way or another, and encouraged him to pursue higher education and higher thinking methods as well.

One of the major world events during Mead's lifetime was the Civil Rights Act. Although this movement took place when he was only 12 years old, the effects of this movement would be continued to be felt, discussed and changed over the years. This movement was prominent throughout his lifetime and may have been a defining factoring in the development of his theories. This may have contributed to the development of his theory regarding the development of "I" and "Me". This movement could be seen in relation to the development of "Me" and engaging yourself in the world around you, relating yourself to the actions and rights of others.

References

Aboulafia, M. (2010). George Herbert Mead. American National Biography. Retrieved from Oxford University Press.

Aboulafia, M. (2016). George Herbert Mead. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/#IMe

About, Inc. (2016). Retrieved from http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/George-Herbert-Mead.htm

Brym et al. (2016) Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, Fifth Canadian Edition Toronto: Maya Castle and Leanna MacLean

Cronk, George. (2016). George Herbert Mead. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/mead/

George Herbert Mead. 2016, September 28). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert_Mead

Miller, B. (n.d.) George Herbert Mead- The I and the Me Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/individuals-and-society/self-presentation-and-interacting-with-others/v/george-herbert-mead-the-i-and-the-me