Arlie Hochschild is a sociologist that was born on january of 1940 in boston. She grew up in a very civilized home with her diplomats parents. Her mother was a caretaker and volunteered for the PTA. Working with that she helped them start a preschool program in maryland. hochschild father was a government official. Her parents influenced her to research and write about care giving and having caring relationship with their children. Later in life Arlie gained her B.A. Degree from swarthmore college in the year of 62. Later on she married adam hochschild who is a magazine editor and together they have 2 children. Nowadays she is member of several sociological associations, like the American Federal Women in Society, the American Federation of Teachers, the International Association for research on Emotion.
Throughout her life she has achieved a lot of accomplishments. The names of some of her most important publication are: -“Ethique du Care et Capitalisme Emotionnel,” an essay she wrote with essays by Carol Gilligan and Joan Tronto. -In 2013 she published a book called “So How’s the Family?” -In 2012 another book called “The Outsourced Self: Intimate Life in Market Times.” - In 2003 an article called “The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes From Home And Work.” - In 1997 a book called “The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. published for paperback American edition. - In 1989 another book called “The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home.” - in 1983 another very famous book called “The Managed Heart: The Commercialization of Human Feeling.”
With her work Arlie has gotten a few awards and honorary degrees: -Her first Honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree was in 1993 in the Swarthmore College. In 2000 she also got one in the University of Oslo. Followed by one she got in the Aalborg University in 2004. After that she got another degree in 2012 from the University of Lapland. The last Honorary Doctor of Philosophy dregree she got was in 2013 in the Mount Saint Vincent University. - Arlie has also gotten some awards from her teaching work. Her first award was Outstanding Teacher Award from the University of California in 1968. She has gotten another one from the University of California in 2001. The last award was Distinguished Teaching Award for the Division of Social Sciences also in 2001.
Hochschild’s Historical context: (USA, 1940 – today)
- 1941: The Japanese attack to Pearl Harbour engages USA in the Second World War;
- 1945: The War ends and USA becomes, with the Soviet Union, one of the most influent countries. The cold war starts;
- 1964 - 1991: Growth of civil rights movements anti-racism and pro feminism. General economic issues;
- 1991: End of the cold war. The Soviet Union is extinguished and USA becomes the most influent country;
- 2001: On September 11th, Al-Qaeda performs several attacks to the USA, including the Twin towers in New York;
- 2009: The first African American president of the USA is elected, Barack Obama;
- 2016: Hillary Clinton (democrat) and Donald Trump (republican) engage in a polemic presidential dispute.
Arlie Hochschild’s contributions to Sociology:
Arlie Hochschild is known as the founder of the Sociology of Emotion, which is the study of the link between social rules and people’s emotions. She uses an interactionist perspective. Here are some of her important concepts:
Hochschild Theory: It estates that emotion is social: people regulate, express and even experience their emotions according to what is socially accepted and culturally constructed. The individuals experience emotions not only through what is expected from them, but also through what they expect from others. Hochschild made an experience with flight attendants and discovered that they exhibit fake and superficial smiles due to the speedy contact they have with the passengers. Another example would be anger: what makes a person angry and how that person manages their anger is, more than just biological, socially constructed. The theory was later enriched by Peggy Thoits.
The economy of gratitude: Individuals offer each other “gifts”, something beyond what is socially expected from them, and that is what causes the feeling of gratitude. When a person does something that is considered an obligation or is in any form socially expected from them, independently of their intentions, they are not likely to be gratified. That explains why husbands mostly do not feel grateful for their wives doing housework: because it is viewed as something women are supposed to do, instead of a gift.
Emotional labour: Also known as the emotion of work and management, it is the control of emotions in commercial enterprises. Once individuals are at an institution, many of their acts are substituted by institutional mechanisms, what can be alarming and cause alienation. Emotion can be a part of some services, and as an example there is the kindness and friendliness of attendants, that can be emotions merely for sale. In jobs, the employee is required to maintain a certain emotion on the costumers and the employer is required to have control over the employee. At a certain point, this alters the employee’s emotional experience. That is called emotive dissonance.
Feeling rules: There are different rules for managing feelings based on social class, race and sex. The emotions that are taught to people end up becoming part of their personality. For example, women are more likely to be hired in jobs that require emotional work and are also expected to be more adjusted to that work.
Politics and Emotion: The motivation for people to defend certain political views or political candidates can be emotional, rather than practical. For example, a person that supports a conservative candidate that resists federal help may not be trying to protect their privileges, but trying to, instead, express their feelings of being excluded and left out by progressives.
Why does she study what she studies?
Her interactionist analyses are new perspectives on old and new issues. She looks at areas that have been already explored, and also contamporarian issues, through the optic of emotion. She probably chooses to study emotions because not only this is an area very little explored by sociology, but it is also present in our daily life.
Feminism is probably one of her interest areas evidently because she is a woman, but also because its third wave is still being formed, discussed and gaining a whole new meaning that does need new views and opinions.
Her last book was an explanation of why Donald Trump, an assumed conservative, has so much popularity in the USA. She looks at this very popular doubt nowadays through her classical emotional analysis, being a very necessary contemporary theorist.
“Some of Arlie’s famous quotes are:”
““Here is a new car, a new iPhone. We buy. We discard. We buy again. In recent years, we've been doing it faster.””
““Compared with the employed, the jobless are less likely to vote, volunteer, see friends and talk to family. Even on weekends, the jobless spend more time alone than those with jobs.””
““The more anxious, isolated and time-deprived we are, the more likely we are to turn to paid personal services. To finance these extra services, we work longer hours. This leaves less time to spend with family, friends and neighbors; we become less likely to call on them for help, and they on us.””
““Paradoxically, those who call for family values also tout the wonders of an unregulated market without observing the subtle cultural links between the family they seek to regulate and the market they hold free.””